Expect an Insightful, Experienced, and Student-Focused Faculty
RIT’s EMBA faculty boasts impressive academic credentials and accomplishments, which, combined with their professional experience, give you a robust educational experience. Recognized as thought leaders and immersed in their fields of expertise, RIT’s faculty and facilitators bring an indispensable perspective to the classroom. As an RIT EMBA student, you have the opportunity to learn from real-world business consultants in the areas of international business, new product development, high-technology, and start-up companies.
Together, you, your peers and the faculty create a rich environment for high-level executive discussions and debates. The faculty’s insight and guidance provide a unique perspective on the complicated workings of today’s global marketplace. Find out more about RIT’s EMBA faculty who are passionate about educating the next generation of executives.
dt ogilive, PhD
A Letter from the Dean
Innovation and entrepreneurship are driving forces in today’s economy, helping to create job opportunities and strengthen communities. This is truly an exciting time to enroll in the E. Philip Saunders College of Business online Executive MBA program at RIT.
The E. Philip Saunders online EMBA is designed specifically for busy professionals whose time is valuable. This innovative and challenging online degree program can be accessed any time and anywhere with an Internet connection. Some of the unique features of the E. Philip Saunders online experience include:
- A convenient, accessible online learning environment: The E. Philip Saunders College of Business at RIT encourages the exchange of ideas among professors and peers of diverse backgrounds through online discussion forums and scheduled chat room meetings. This engaging environment facilitates exciting learning experiences and networking among successful businessmen and women across the nation.
- A rigorous curriculum: Our programs emphasize critical thinking and problem solving, project-based learning, multidisciplinary teams and interaction among students. Our strong industry ties have enabled us to shape our degree programs to the needs of today’s marketplace.
- Highest accreditation: The E. Philip Saunders College of Business is AACSB-accredited, which represents the highest standard of achievement for business schools worldwide. Less than 5% of the world’s 13,000 business programs have earned AACSB Accreditation.
- Nationally ranked: You will find that the E. Philip Saunders College of Business at RIT ranks high in many national surveys, including those by Business Week and the Princeton Review. Here are some highlights from U.S. News & World Report:
- #65-Faculty Credentials and Training
- #30-Student Engagement and Accreditation
- #88-Student Services and Technology
- Online Accolades: SuperScholar recognized RIT in its 2012 Smart Choice ranking of online MBA degree programs. The Online Executive MBA program offered by the E. Philip Saunders College of Business was awarded the #15 position.
- Graduates in demand: Our graduates have achieved impressive levels of success in the marketplace, commanding high salaries and securing stimulating positions at companies across the nation and around the world.
If you are seeking a distinctive degree and have the ability and the desire to think outside of the box, you have definitely come to the right place. We all look forward to having you join the E. Philip Saunders College of Business online Executive MBA program at RIT.
Marty Lawlor, MBA
Director, Online EMBA Program
Marty Lawlor lectures in Marketing and Management at the E. Philip Saunders College of Business at Rochester Institute of Technology, and is currently Director of the Online EMBA Program. He has held senior management positions in corporate strategy, competitive intelligence, information research, and business development with leading telecommunications and wireless Internet firms, including Nortel Networks and InfoSpace, Inc., and spent more than a decade in entrepreneurial ventures, including starting up and managing a retail bookstore and founding FYI, an early information brokerage firm.
Marty has focused extensively on market and technology topics and has conducted numerous analysis projects to enable more effective decision-making. His work ranges from market assessments, competitive profiles and business cases to vision papers and strategic plan recommendations. He is a member of the American Marketing Association, and a board member of the International Resource Group.
Recent projects include a market opportunity assessment for the Rochester Tooling & Machining Association and a strategic analysis of business center survey and focus group data for the United States Department of State. He has also conducted multiple strategic plan analyses under a New York State Department of Labor grant administered by the Center for Integrated Manufacturing Studies at Rochester Institute of Technology. A recent entrepreneurial venture is a pilot launch of a searchable web-based database of topical news-related media for business school faculty. Marty received his BA in Spanish from the University of Buffalo, and holds an MLS from SUNY at Geneseo and an MBA from Rochester Institute of Technology.
Robert Barbato, PhD
Bob Barbato is a Professor of Management in the Saunders College of Business. His primary teaching and research interests are in the areas of business ethics, entrepreneurship and organizational behavior. Dr. Barbato has taught or lectured in Saudi Arabia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, South Korea, Ethiopia and England.
Robert Boehner, JD
Distinguished Lecturer, Executive in Residence
Bob Boehner worked for Xerox for 30 years, holding a variety of senior management positions including VP World Wide Marketing, VP Strategy and VP World Wide Channels Development. He earned his JD from the School of Law at the University of North Carolina at Chaptel Hill in 1999 and his BA and MA in history from Siena College. Professor Boehner has been an adjunct professor in the College of Business at RIT since 1993. He joined the COB faculty as a Visiting Professor in 2005.
Laurie Dwyer, MBA
Laurie Dwyer is currently the President of Strategic Insite, LLC, a company that provides strategic marketing planning, branding and product commercialization consulting services. She serves as a full-time lecturer in the E. Philip Saunders College of Business teaching graduate and undergraduate marketing courses. Laurie was previously Vice President, Worldwide Marketing of Lightnin, SPX, a global leader in pharmaceutical mixing. Prior to SPX, Laurie served as Vice President, Marketing of Eastman Kodak Company, Health Imaging and Professional Imaging. Laurie is currently on the Rochester American Marketing Association Board and was past President of the Board of the Rochester e-Business Association (2006-2007) and fund raiser for the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. She received a BS from St. Lawrence University and an MBA from the Rochester Institute of Technology.
John Ettlie, PhD
Rosett Professor of Business
John Ettlie is the Rosett Professor of Business in the Saunders College of Business, Rochester Institute of Technology. He earned his PhD at Northwestern University in 1975 and has held appointments since then at the University of Illinois Chicago, De Paul University, the Industrial Technology Institute and the University of Michigan Business School.
Dr. Ettlie has published over 60 refereed journal articles and has made over 100 professional presentations, world-wide, on the management of technological innovation. He has authored five books, including a new textbook published by John Wiley & Sons (New York, 2000) titled Managing Technological Innovation.
His current research projects include: 1) an investigation of the adoption of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems; 2) a study of technology, reliability and customization of manufacturing products with Professor Michael Johnson, University of Michigan Business School; and 3) the context of new product development (NPD) with Professor Mohan Subramaniam, Boston College and Professor Deborah Dougherty, Rutgers University.
Current initiatives include the RIT New Product Development Forum and the Innovation Research Network. Both groups meet periodically to support the applied research agenda in the College of Business.
Professor Ettlie has been the consultant to numerous corporations and government projects including the Saturn Corporation, Allied-Signal Corporation, Caterpillar Tractor, Inc., PACAR and Reynolds Metals. He is the associate editor of several professional journals including Decision Sciences and the Journal of Operations Management.
Steven Gold, PhD
Dr. Gold is a professor of economics in the Saunders College of Business at the Rochester Institute of Technology. His administrative experience includes serving as department chair of finance and accounting for five years, faculty director of the college’s management development program, and vice-president of the faculty senate at RIT. The focus of his research has been in the field of business simulations and gaming. He has published over 26 referred journal articles and proceedings on simulation and gaming and on the modeling of demand, production and finance algorithms; he has received three best research paper awards and was recognized as one of the outstanding reviewers in simulation research in 2008. He is the author of four computerized business and economic simulation games with for publishers Macmillan, Random House and McGraw-Hill. His most recent simulation game, “Beat the Market”, is an interactive game used for teaching and learning economics.
Dr. Gold is a fellow and past president of the national Association and Experiential Learning (ABSEL). A bibliometric co-citation study cited Steven Gold as one of the most “influential” authors in simulation research with this association. He has received three best research paper awards, and in 2008 was recognized as one of the outstanding reviewers in the simulation research track. He was an associate editor of Simulation & Gaming: An International Journal of Theory, Design, and Research; and is currently one of the reviewers. He received his BA in economics and BS in industrial engineering from Rutgers University in New Brunswick, Canada, and his MA and PhD degrees in economics from the SUNY in Binghamton.
Neil Hair, PhD
Assistant Professor, Chartered Marketer
Neil Hair is an Assistant Professor of Marketing from the E. Philip Saunders College of Business at Rochester Institute of Technology, New York in the United States. Dr. Hair holds Chartered Marketer Status from the Chartered Institute of Marketing, a PhD from Cranfield as well as degrees from Sheffield and Cardiff Business Schools. His research and consulting activities are cutting edge, recent projects include understanding perceptions of advertising and customer value in popular online social networks like myspace and facebook, personal branding in virtual space, and virtual ethnography in popular worlds such as Second Life. He is also passionate about his role as a facilitator having recently won RIT’s highest teaching award for new faculty in 2006-07 and RIT’s highest teaching award for online learning in 2007-08. He has been awarded several research grants for pursuing pedagogy research. One such interest involves teaching the world’s first programme on the commercialization of Second Life.
Chun-Keung (Stan) Hoi, PhD
Associate Professor, Zutes Faculty Fellow
Chun-Keung (Stan) Hoi is an associate professor of finance in the Saunders College of Business at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Dr. Hoi earned his Ph.D. in business administration with a concentration in finance and a minor in economics at the Arizona State University in 1997. He has a MS (1989) and a BS (1987) in economics both at the University of North Texas.
His current research interests include corporate finance, corporate governance, and “law and finance”. He has published in academic journals. His recent works on the labor market for directors and director compensation have appeared in the Journal of Finance and the Financial Management. His teaching interests include corporate finance, investment, international finance and economics.
Clyde Hull, PhD
Dr. Hull is a Zutes Faculty Fellow and an Associate Professor in the Rochester Institute of Technology Saunders College of Business, where he teaches classes in Strategy and Innovation and Technology Management at the undergraduate and graduate levels.
He has served as a strategy consultant and a high-technology consultant domestically and internationally for established high-technology firms in the pre-IPO stage, as well as start-ups, and for the United States Government.
Dr. Hull has been invited to deliver presentations on the topics of entrepreneurship, corporate entrepreneurship, strategic management, business ethics and ethics in a high-technology environment in Singapore, Germany and the United States, and he has presented at conferences all the world.
He earned his BA in philosophy from Yale University and his MBA and PhD degrees from Indiana University.
His research interests include innovation strategy and new product introduction in high-technology settings, digital entrepreneurship, the effects of ecologically friendly strategies on firm performance and global strategy formulation.
Roberta Klein, MBA
Roberta Klein has taught a variety of business courses since she started teaching at RIT in 1995. Roberta’s specialty area is tax accounting but she also teaches courses in financial and managerial accounting, personal financial planning, corporate finance, and business computer applications. Before starting her teaching career, Roberta worked at PriceWaterhouse in Rochester where she obtained sufficient audit experience to become a CPA. Her education includes a BS in American History from SUNY Brockport and an MBA in Accounting from RIT.
Professor Klein is the recipient of the 2005 Exemplary Online Teaching Award. She started teaching distance learning courses in 2003 and blended courses in 2004. She enjoys the increased interaction that she has with her students when working with them online as well as the depth of class discussions that take place outside of class in myCourses.
In addition to her teaching responsibilities, Roberta is the faculty advisor of the accounting club (The Next Generation of Accountants) and serves as the site coordinator of the Volunteer Income Tax Assistance program in which accounting students prepare tax returns for low-income taxpayers in the Rochester area free-of-charge.
H. Andrew Lawrence IV, EMBA
H. Andrew Lawrence IV (Andy) is an Adjunct Professor at RIT’s Saunder’s College of Business. In addition, Andy is currently a Sr. Managing Consultant with Kodak’s financial services consulting and outsourcing practice in Asia. In this capacity he is responsible for current and future marketing strategy and delivery, directing the market intelligence team and is a leader of consulting projects definition and delivery on a worldwide basis for the practice.
Andy joined Eastman Kodak Company in 1990 as a Service Engineer in the Business Imaging Systems Division. In 1994, he moved to a Product Marketing role in support of Kodak enterprise imaging systems and storage products. In 1998, he joined Treev, Inc. as a Product Manager for an enterprise report management and storage software product line. In 2000, Andy rejoined Kodak to became the Worldwide Product Manager for a Digital Archive product portfolio. In 2004, he assumed the role of WW Solutions Business Manager and directed the introduction of Kodak’s solutions and services portfolio for financial services industry. In 2008 he assumed his current role at Kodak.
Andy graduated from the Rochester Institute of Technology in1994 where he received a BS in Electrical Engineering. He also holds an Executive Masters of Business Administration (EMBA) degree from Rochester Institute of Technology and is a member of Beta Gamma Sigma.
Gary Maggs, PhD
Gary E. Maggs is a Full Professor of Economics at St. John Fisher College and a native of Youngstown, Ohio. Dr. Maggs’ education began at Youngstown State University where he was awarded A.B. and M.A. degrees in economics. He completed his graduate education at West Virginia University, earning a Ph.D. in economics in 1986. Since then, he has been a full-time faculty member in the Economics Department at St. John Fisher College and has been a chairperson of the department for the past seven years. He has taught courses including Economics (HEOP), Introductory Microeconomics, Introductory Macroeconomics, Intermediate Macroeconomics, International Economics, International Economic Policy, Money and Banking, Economics of Sport, Statistics, Mathematical Economics, Financial Economics, Economics (MBA program), Economics (Executive MBA), and International Economics (GISP). He has published numerous articles in macroeconomic theory, monetary theory, and international economics that appear in journals such as the Journal of Macroeconomics, Atlantic Economic Journal, Public Finance Quarterly, and the Journal of Economic Education.
Richard Notargiacomo, MBA
Rich Notargiacomo is Business Development Manager at Rochester Institute of Technology’s Venture Creations incubator and is also an Adjunct Professor at RIT’s E. Philip Saunders College of Business. At Venture Creations, Rich works with entrepreneurs and business teams to help develop their businesses. At the Saunders College, Rich is Co-Principal Investigator for the Technology Commercialization Clinic, manages the Saunders Student Consulting group, and mentors Executive MBA Capstone Project Teams.
Prior to joining RIT in 2010, Rich was President of Innovation Focus – Rochester, LLC, an executive coaching and consulting firm that helped companies grow through innovation and new products. Before starting that firm, Rich spent 34 years with Eastman Kodak Company working on innovation and new products while holding assignments in many functional areas including product development, marketing, manufacturing and operations, business and product management, strategic planning, and technology management. His experience spans strategy development through commercialization and product discontinuance.
Rich is also is the immediate past Chairman of the Board and President of the Product Development and Management Association, an international professional association for people engaged in innovation and new products. Rich is a certified New Product Development Professional and holds two patents in Internet-based commerce. He holds a BS degree in Chemical Engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, an MBA in Marketing from the Simon School of Business at the University of Rochester, and a coaching certificate from Coach University. He is also a graduate of the Center for Creative Leadership’s Leadership Development Program.
Brian O’Neil, PhD
Brian O’Neil is currently a Distinguished Lecturer in the Saunders College of Business at Rochester Institute of Technology teaching in the areas of Operations Management, Supply Chain Management and General Business. Prior to this appointment Brian served as the Associate Dean and Director of Graduate Programs in the Saunders College of Business. Previous teaching and administrative assignments have included Clarkson University, Indiana University and the University of Miami. Brian has received formal recognition for his teaching at each of the universities he has served. Brian received his B.S. in Industrial Engineering from Syracuse University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Industrial Administration from Purdue University.
Brian has taught in numerous management development programs in North and South America, Europe and Asia. His research interests include applied quantitative methods in operations and supply chain management and he has published widely in these areas in such journals as Logistics and Transportation Review, Transportation Journal, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Materials Management, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice and Journal of Business Logistics.
Brian has extensive consulting experience having served for a number of years on the consulting staff for both PepsiCo and Anheuser-Busch along with a number of additional clients including General Electric, Arrow-Schweiber Electronics and Ryder Systems.
Michael Palanski is an Assistant Professor in Management and Zutes Faculty Fellow, teaching Organizational Behavior, Leadership, and Business Ethics for both undergraduate and graduate students. He holds a Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior and Leadership from the State University of New York at Binghamton. He also holds a Master’s Degree in Theological Studies from Covenant Theological Seminary and a B.S. in Business Economics from Grove City College.
Palanski’s research interests include leadership, ethics, and levels of analysis issues. Prior to becoming a professor, he was a retail product manager and an online banking specialist. An avid football fan, he enjoys interacting with students both in and out of the classroom. Palanski serves as the faculty advisor for InterVarsity Christian Fellowship.
Victor Perotti, PhD
Dr. Perotti is an Associate Professor and leads the Digital Business initiative at RIT. He consults on the business implications of new technologies including digital business, digital entrepreneurship, Web 2.0, e-commerce, Web business models and mobile work. His most recent research examines social networks (especially Facebook.com), social computing, Clean Slate Internet approaches, mobile collaboration, digital entrepreneurship, electronic communities and video game business models.
Dr. Perotti is an accomplished communicator and educator, and was awarded RIT’s highest honors for teaching, the Richard and Virginia Eisenhart Provost’s Award for Excellence in Teaching (2000) and the Eisenhart Award for Outstanding Teaching (2004). His professional speaking engagements include academic conferences, small group meetings and large auditorium lectures.
Before joining RIT, Dr. Perotti completed master’s degrees in Computer Science (1990) and Cognitive Psychology (1994) and his PhD in Cognitive Psychology (1997), all at Ohio State University. His doctoral thesis examined the visual perception of 3-D structure from motion information.
Dr. Perotti’s consulting work has ranged from conducting advanced business simulation experiences at Harris R.F. to business plan development for pre-seed video game companies to creating multimedia software for David Bowie’s “Jump” CD-ROM.
Ashok Robin, PhD
Dr. Robin is a professor of finance in the College of Business at RIT. Dr. Robin also serves as a Fellow in the Center for International Business. He completed his Ph.D. in finance with a minor in accounting at SUNY at Buffalo in 1988, and before that had earned an MBA in finance at the same school. His undergraduate education is in the area of commerce and accounting, completed at the University of Madras in India. His research interests include corporate governance and international accounting. He has published articles in academic journals such as the Journal of Accounting and Economics, Journal of Financial Research and Financial Management. His teaching interests include corporate finance, international finance and financial derivatives. He has served in the finance department at RIT’s College of Business since 1989. Prior to this tenure, he taught for two years at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Sandra Rothenberg, PhD
Dr. Rothenberg is a professor at RIT’s Saunders College of Business in the Department of Management. She received her PhD in Organizational Behavior from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Sloan School of Management, MS in Technology and Policy, also from MIT, and BS in Bioengineering from Syracuse University.
Dr. Rothenberg was awarded the Sloan Jr. Faculty Fellowship in 2004, the Harvard Global Environmental Assessment Post Doctoral Fellowship in 1998, the Academy of Management ONE Interest Group Service Award in 1997, the Alumni Award for Excellence and Leadership in Technology and Policy in 1992, and the Bernard Rabinowitz Fellowship for Leadership and Service in 1991.
She is currently a researcher for the Printing Industry Center at RIT and the International Motor Vehicle Program at MIT, where her research primarily focuses on corporate environmental strategy and management, lean manufacturing and environmental performance, government regulation and technical innovation, international environmental management, worker participation, and environmental activism within firms. She has also worked as a research associate for the Harvard Global Environmental Assessment Program, U.S. Office of Technology Assessment, and MIT Technology, Business and Environment program.
Delmonize Smith, PhD
Delmonize “Del” Smith has extensive management experience in industries such as healthcare, IT, education, and government. He has served in numerous roles throughout his career, including systems analyst in the U.S. Army, consultant for Fortune 500 firms, management scholar, and serial entrepreneur. At the age of 25, Dr. Smith was the founder and president of one of a handful of minority-certified companies recognized as a Microsoft Certified Partner and Cisco Premier Partner.
Dr. Smith’s research has been published in leading journals such as Human Relations, Journal of Business Research, and Journal of Information Technology Management. He also teaches University level courses in organizational behavior, human resources, leadership, and entrepreneurship. In addition to his publications, Dr. Smith frequently speaks across the country on topics ranging from minority entrepreneurship to the management of technology.
The Rochester Business Journal recently named Dr. Smith an honoree of their Forty Under 40 award, which recognizes professionals younger than 40 years of age for service in their jobs and in the community. The Democrat and Chronicle recently named him one of Rochester’s emerging African-American leaders.
Dr. Smith received his B.A. in Management from Faulkner University, M.S. in Management from Troy University, and Ph.D. in Management with an applied concentration in Organizational Behavior and MIS from the University of Alabama.
Zhi Tang, PhD
Zhi Tang graduated from the University of Alabama with a Ph.D. degree in Strategic Management in August 2006. He holds a B.S. in Economics from Shandong University, China and an M.S. in Finance from Fudan University, China. His research interests are in the areas of environmental uncertainty, entrepreneurial orientation, and organizational complexity. Tang likes sports, especially tennis, volleyball, and swimming.
Daniel Tessoni, PhD
Dr. Tessoni is an assistant professor of Accounting in the College of Business at RIT and a CPA. He received his PhD in Accounting from Syracuse University, an MS from Clarkson and a bachelor’s degree from St. John Fisher College. He has presented seminars and executive programs on accounting and finance-related issues to numerous companies including Constellation Brands, Inc., ITT Industries Eastman Kodak, Xerox, Bausch & Lomb, Chase Manhattan Bank, First Empire State Corporation and Apple Computer.
He served as a member of the Board of Directors of ACC Corp., a publicly held long distance and cellular telephone company from 1987 until 1998 when the company was purchased by ATT. Dr. Tessoni served as chairman of the Audit Committee and as a member of the Compensation Committee and the Executive Committee and several special committees.He currently serves on the board of several privately held corporations.
His research interests are in the areas of agency theory and positive accounting theory.
Gregory Van Laeken, MBA
Adjunct Faculty Professor
Gregory Van Laeken is a specialist in the area of international finance and derivative products, and an experienced executive in global banking and institutional investment advisement.
Van Laeken began his career working in the New York Metropolitan area as an interbank dealer of interest rate and currency derivatives. In 2003 he moved to Zurich, Switzerland, as the vice president and global head of emerging markets trading for a prestigious private Swiss bank. In this role Van Laeken helped to develop and oversee rapid growth in the emerging market trading and sales operation for the bank’s foreign exchange division.
In 2005 Van Laeken left the financial services industry to become business manager and analyst for global operations at Rochester Institute of Technology. Van Laeken works directly with senior management across all divisions of RIT to provide leadership in the areas of business and financial planning as well as daily operations and risk management for RIT’s overseas campuses.
Additionally, Van Laeken oversees the management of RIT’s short-term investment portfolio and advises senior management on the institute’s debt portfolio and interest rate hedging strategies.
Van Laeken earned a bachelor’ss degree in economics in 1994 and MBA in 2008 from RIT.
He also serves as an adjunct faculty instructor for the E. Philip Saunders College of Business at RIT where he specializes in international finance and derivative products.
John Ward, MS
John Ward is a lecturer at RIT’s Saunders College of Business. He received his bachelor’s degree in Industrial Engineering from Georgia Tech in 1984. As a Cooperative Education student with Eastman Kodak, John joined Kodak and remained there for 20 years in a variety of engineering, sales, marketing and general management assignments. He completed an Executive Masters in Management program at Purdue and became Chief Marketing Officer of the Hewlett Packard and Eastman Kodak joint venture Phogenix Imaging in 2001. He left Phogenix to take a lead management role for Kodak in the European, Africa and Middle East Region, living in Geneva Switzerland.
Stanley Widrick, PhD
Dr. Widrick served as Senior Associate Dean in the Saunders College of Business at Rochester Institute of Technology through August of 2008 and Director of the online EMBA Program through June 2011. He is an expert in developing international business plans based on the theories of marketing, international business and business performance.
Dr. Widrick teaches graduate classes in international marketing, marketing management and business research. In addition to his administrative responsibilities, he has worked as a consultant for a wide variety of industries including Eastman Kodak Company, General Motors, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester Telephone, and numerous other corporations and governmental agencies. He has trained international marketing managers in Latin America, southeast Asia, and eastern and western Europe.
His articles on marketing strategies, pricing decisions and buyer behavior have been published in a variety of journals and conference proceedings including Business & Society, The Journal of Consumer Marketing, Advances in Consumer Research, Journal of Retailing, The Journal of Consumer Affairs, Journal of Product & Brand Management, and others.
Dr. Widrick has a BS in chemistry from Clarkson University, an MBA from SUNY at Buffalo and a PhD in marketing from Syracuse University.